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Industrial materials for concrete applications

Natural organic fillers
Synthetic organic fillers
Mineral fillers...

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Fillers and reinforcing agents

From natural to high-performance fillers.



A filler is an inert, mineral or vegetable substance added to a basic polymer, making it possible to modify the mechanical, electrical, thermal properties, the surface appearance or to reduce the cost of a material.

The choice of a filler is determined according to the properties sought and must meet a certain number of constraints:

- Compatibility with the matrix: non-toxicity, absence of discolouration or annoying impurities, chemical neutrality and inertia, heat and light stability, low water absorption, no influence on the stability of the polymer or its color.
- Wettability: good distribution of the powders in the polymer matrix or adhesion of the fibers to the base resin.
- Uniformity of quality and grain size.
- Weak abrasive action on the processing tool.
- Cost price related to the application.

Fillers improve many properties that the polymeric material does not have or cannot achieve on its own. They allow in particular to obtain one or more of the following effects:
- increased rigidity and hardness;
- regularization of thermal expansion and shrinkage;
- increase in thermal resistance;
- decrease in creep;
- modification of the rheological properties (flow, thixotropy); - easier implementation;
- modification of appearance (opacity, color, texture).

To allow their incorporation, the fillers require several chemical and physical characteristics.

In fact, the fillers must not react chemically with the matrix, the adjuvants and the stabilizers. Also, it is necessary to take into consideration, the color and the refractive index, the density, the rate of volatile matter, the dimensions of the particles, the Mohs hardness and the dispersibility.

Generally, spherical fillers have a weak interfacial action with the polymer matrix and behave like inert extenders, which replace by mass effect a certain volume of the polymer.
Thus, cheap powders and flours have an economic interest. These fillers reduce the cost of the molding operation, decrease shrinkage, sometimes improve the mechanical strength of the material (especially in compression).

On the contrary, the fibrous fillers give rise to a significant interaction between their surface and the polymer matrix, and therefore play (with the exception of plant fibers) the role of reinforcement of the plastic material. They improve the breaking strength, increase the rigidity and ensure better conservation of these properties at high temperature.

They are often called reinforcing fillers or reinforcing agents.

Mineral fillers often improve dielectric properties, increase resistance to heat and humidity, increase the density of the molding material and decrease shrinkage.



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Pam technology is compatible
with most standard industrial fillers!

Pam is a 3D printing technology compatible with industrial materials in the shape of pellets. Filled and reinforced thermoplastics are processable with it. The versatility of Pam solution allows transforming filled thermoplastic materials; whatever the fibber & up to 60%.

Natural organic fillers
Natural organic fillers

There are a number of natural organic fillers, the main ones being wood flour, vegetable fibers and starch.


Wood flour

Reduces shrinkage during molding. Provides good electrical properties and impact resistance.

Vegetable fiber

Low mechanical characteristics, good resistance to wear, thermal and electrical insulation.

Starch

Allows obtaining biodegradable materials.




Synthetic organic fillers
Synthetic organic fillers

There is often an improvement in the characteristics of resins containing synthetic fillers in the form of polymer powders.


Styrene / butadiene elastomer

Increases impact resistance.

PTFE and fluorinated polymers

Improve impact resistance and lubrication.

Cellulose aceto butyrate

Reduces shrinkage during moulding.

Polyethylene

Improves the surface finish.




Mineral fillers
Mineral fillers

There are several mineral fillers such as chalks, carbonates and silicas, which facilitate extrusion, improve resistance, reduce shrinkage, etc.


Calcium carbonate

Improves shine as well as mechanical resistance, facilitates extrusion.

Silica sands

Reduce shrinkage during moulding.

Quartz

Improves resistance to humidity and resistance to cracking.

Diatom flour (tripoli)

Increases the compressive strength, thermal, electrical and sound insulation.

Thermal silica

Increases viscosity, improves thixotropy.

Talcs

Brings white to light gray pigmentation, improves flow and rigidity of the parts.

Micas

Improves molding of premixes.

Kaolin

Improves resistance to humidity and resistance to cracking.

Wollastonite

Reduces water absorption, improves impact resistance and thermal, dielectric properties.




Metal oxides hydrates fillers
Metal oxides & hydrates

Metal oxides and hydrates are added to the resins in the form of fine powders and microspheres, they increase density, better electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, etc.


Aluminium oxide

Improves electrical resistivity, ensures good thermal conductivity; decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion, increases rigidity, resistance to abrasion and fire.

Magnesium oxide

Increases the viscosity of the premixes, as well as the hardness and rigidity of the parts.

Zinc oxide

Increases electrical conductivity and resistance to ultraviolet rays.

Beryllium oxide

Increases electrical conductivity.

Titanium dioxide

White pigment, anti-UV barrier, improves resistance to aging, gives good resistance to water and heat.

Magnesium oxysulfate (MOS)

Short fibers, increases Young’s modulus, impact and heat resistance.

Ceranic

Load family providing a mass reduction of 15 to 25%, improved resistance to compression and impact.




Glass fillers
Glass

Glass can be used as a filler in the form of fiber, it is then a so-called reinforcing filler, of hollow glass beads or of microspheres, making it possible to improve the performance of the polymer matrix or to reduce the mass of the parts produced.


Glass fibers

Reinforcing agents.

Hollow glass beads

Improve resistance to water and aging Increases Young’s modulus in compression.

Glass microspheres

Facilitates the filling of the mold. 25 to 35% reduction in the mass of the parts obtained.




Carbon fillers
Carbon

Carbon is a filler widely used in industry in the form of powder and where fiber.


Carbon black

Pigment, UV barriers, antioxidants. The thermal conductivity increases with the charge rate, regardless of the particle size. The electrical conductivity of charged materials increases with the carbon content and with the fineness of the particles.

Graphite

Improves rigidity and creep resistance.

Petroleum coke

Improves tensile strength and heat resistance.

Hollow carbon spheres (carbospheres)

Lower the density.

Carbon and graphite fibers

High performance reinforcing filler, high price limiting their use to excellent applications.




Mettalic fillers
Metallic fillers

The addition of metallic fillers (aluminum, copper, nickel, iron, etc.) is carried out to make the plastic materials used to conduct electricity or heat, and in particular for the electromagnetic protection of various devices.


Aluminium

Improves machinability, impact resistance, thermal and electrical conductivity.

Copper

Improves rigidity and creep resistance.

Iron

Improves machinability, thermal and electrical conductivity.

Lead

High density, provides protection against radiation and absorption of sound in materials.

Zinc

Improves corrosion resistance.

Potassium titanate

Improves dimensional stability and reduces the molding cycle.

Barium sulphate

Increases density and compressive strength.

Barium ferrite

Gives magnetic properties.




Aramid filler
Aramid

Aramid fibers are reinforcing fillers and have high mechanical properties, they are generally known as “Kevlar”.


Aramid

Lightness, good resistance to impact and abrasion.




Open material technology logo
Open material technology

Pam is a 3D printing technology compatible with industrial materials in the shape of pellets. Filled and reinforced thermoplastics are processable with it. The versatility of Pam solution allows transforming filled thermoplastic materials; whatever the fibber up to 60%.


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Already compatible with:

Kraiburg TPE
Solvay
Albis
BASF
Borealis
Celanese
Total
Clariant
Covestro
Dow
Eastman
Ineos Styrolution
Kuraray
Lati
Lotte
Nature Works
Polymim
Polyone
Sabic

Pam technology is compatible with most chemistry in the shape of pellets.